The history of human individuality in Europe can be understood as an ongoing development toward an ever-greater autonomy for the individual (with all its setbacks!). Today this development has come to its culmination. It is no longer just a question of expanding the autonomy of the individual (although even here not everything has been achieved that one could wish for), but a question of placing it on a new footing. During primeval times human beings gradually developed an awareness of themselves. The goal was a human being, acting on his own terms, whose attitudes, however, implied a growing egocentric characteristic (freedom of the individual in the sense of liberalism). As long as this is considered to be the only possible way, it is necessary to restrain the selfish individual through the use of community values, laws and regulations, to get any form of viable cooperation at all (socialism, communitarianism, the great ideologies of the Twentieth Century etc.). Meanwhile it's becoming increasingly clear, that another self-conception of a human being is working its way into the foreground, in which he experiences himself as a spiritual individuality.